Observations of Anomalous DC Power Generation by a
Dry Empty Previously-charged Joe Cell Cylinder Pack

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ver. 1.1.3; last updated 03/28/2010

Joe Cell slight angle
The test/charging Joe Cell (shown in photo with the liquid electrolyte, aka cell juice, installed).

Yes, you read the subject header correctly! I do write a bit about Joe Cells at times, and one example is my webpage article reporting the results of my analysis (using Western lab equipment plus intuitive/clairsentient assay) of the spent cell juice from Joe Cell-like aetheric energy battery. That article has been viewed by some folks in the JoC (Joe Cell) world as literally a "first", wherein Western scientific equipment and testing methods were able to demonstrate some fascinating and anomalous properties of spent cell juice from a Joe Cell-like aetheric energy accumulator. As some of my colleagues in the JoC world point out, this is somewhat important, because, until now, Joe Cells have been almost totally rejected and ridiculed by mainstream Western science and engineering, and for several understandable reasons:
  • The claims made about JoCs in automotive internal combustion engine (ICE) use are admittedly strange, and contrary to many of the established tenets of mainstream science and engineering.
  • Even the most stalwart insiders in the Joe Cell world admit that fewer than one out of 800 Joe Cells constructed by experimenters ever become functional in the lab or shop, and that even far fewer, perhaps only one in ten thousand, ever end up being used successfully in automotive ICE applications in the assist (aka shandy) mode, and even far fewer in the JoC-as-sole-source-of-power mode.
  • Despite a number of public claims of success in employing Joe Cells as the sole source of power for an automotive ICE (internal combustion engine) and despite a far larger number of claims of success in employing JoCs in the assist mode (aka shandy mode) in automotive ICEs, even the most dedicated insiders in the JoC world admit that there has, as of December 2007, never been a single successful public demonstration of such a feat.
  • Worse, a significant number of the claims made to date have either been later redacted or have been uniformly viewed as hoaxes even within the JoC world. For example, I know two JoC researchers who have been contacted by several JoC enthusiasts apiece who have claimed that they had converted a motor vehicle to fully operate on a JoC, and who set a firm time and date to visit the researcher at his home in their JoC-converted vehicle(s) to demonstrate their JoC setup(s), and they never arrived as promised. When contacted later and asked about the no-shows, they hemmed and hawed and offered a variety of excuses as to why they did not show up to deliver the promised demonstration.
  • As is readily apparent to even a casual outside observer, there exists a lot of misinformation, myth, hype, conflict, contradiction and confusion within the Joe Cell world, even over simple basics of how a Joe Cell may be constructed and employed in automotive ICE use. This causes the entire field to appear entirely unreliable, disreputable and untrustworthy to most outside observers. Some of my callers who have contacted me to inquire about Joe Cell technologies have been considerably less kind and less charitable in their assessments of the current state of the art in the Joe Cell field!
Well, at this point, I am able to share with you the results of some preliminary testing in my lab over the past six months which has yielded some interesting and very unexpected findings regarding behavior of a functional i.e., "working" Joe Cell on my lab test bench.

Background Needed to Understand Observations
In the Joe Cell (JoC) world, it is commonly believed by most of the old-timers that the orgone energy charge is stored in the water once it has been successfully conditioned and charged in a Joe Cell cylinder array (aka cylinder pack), and that the pack of coaxial concentrically-arranged stainless steel (SS) tubes, aka the "cylinder pack", once emptied of water, retains no significant orgone energy charge or other exotic properties. And, concomitantly, it is believed that once the water has been conditioned and charged, it will hold the orgone charge for anywhere from a few hours to a few days or longer, and may be transferred from one cell (cylinder pack) to another, carrying the orgone charge with it, at least for as long as it remains charged with orgone energy. To reiterate briefly what I have written above, it is commonly believed in the JoC world that once the water (aka electrolyte liquid or cell juice) had been successfully charged in a Joe Cell array, the empty cylinder pack serves no useful purpose and stores no significant orgone charge, and that the sole purpose of a cylinder pack is to impart to the water the special properties, via conditioning and charging that allows it to acquire the requisite charge. And, a number of the old-timers even state specifically that the charge is a signature or property of the water and not of the empty cylinder pack.

My brief report below, while it does not at all contradict the belief that the water (aka electrolyte liquid or cell juice) can, once charged, store orgone energy for a period ranging from several hours to several days or longer, and in fact, everything that I have witnessed in my lab regarding JoC juice tends to confirm that widely-held belief, my research indicates that the dry empty JoC pack also retains an orgone energy charge. Specifically, my research has accidentally uncovered significant evidence that an empty cylinder pack, that is, a dry and empty cell consisting solely of several stainless steel tubes of varying diameters arranged coaxially and concentrically and separated by plastic spacers, seems to retain anomalous properties which indicate that the dry empty cell pack, once charged, will retain an orgone charge for a period ranging from a few hours to a number of days or longer. This discovery was largely accidental, and the series of tests which led to it was guided solely by intuitive hunches and not by any kind of formal hypothesis or model. Further details will follow in the sections below.

Observations of Anomalous DC Power with Significant Voltage (E) and Current (I) Produced Across Time by Empty Dry Charged Cylinder Pack
For all observations shared below, the Joe Cell employed for the tests was an 8 inch tall array of coaxial concentric stainless steel type 316I or 316L tubes, moderately polished, never passivated, with cylinder spacing maintained by spacers at each end consisting of short lengths of flexible plastic tubing under compression. The innermost cylinder measures 0.75" OD, while the outermost cylinder measures 4" OD. The entire cylinder pack was mounted inside an eight inch diameter one-gallon plastic bucket with near-vertical walls, with the bottom of the cylinder pack elevated about 0.5" above the bottom of the bucket via an X-shaped array (i.e., forming a cross) of plastic tubing glued to the bottom of the bucket. The cell/array was always filled with liquid to a level about 0.5" below the top of the SS tubes. All electrical connections to the tubes, namely, to the innermost tube (negative polarity when charging) and to the outermost tube (positive polarity when charging) were made to the top edges of the tubes using alligator clip-equipped leads.

Joe Cell top

The test/charging Joe Cell (shown in photos
with the liquid electrolyte, aka cell juice, installed).

Joe Cell angle

DC power source was an adjustable 0-30 VDC metered (I and A metering) laboratory bench supply capable of supplying up to 4A at 30 VDC.

At all times, the Joe Cell array in question sat on a rather crowded wooden lab bench in my lab, which happens to be located in a dedicated room in my home located in the remote mountain wilderness. Measurements were made using a digital VOM (volt-ohm-milliammeter) with at least 10 Megohm input impedance on all relevant scales.

The Joe Cell cylinder pack had been used to prepare two consecutive 0.85 gallon batches of "cell juice" over a 2 month period. The starting water in each case was unfiltered/unprocessed mountain well water exhibiting 35 ppm TDS, and doped with a customized formula of finely-powdered ormus-rich compounds. The liquid, once formulated and mixed, was subjected to repeated cycles of DC charging (using innermost tube as cathode and outermost tube as anode), usually at a DC voltage ranging between 10 VDC to 31 VDC, with a current flow ranging (depending upon conductivity of water) from 0.09 A (90 ma) to 0.6A (600 ma), interspersed with filtering through 2 layers of unbleached paper coffee filters to remove large particulate contaminants. The entire cylinder array and bucket were rinsed vigorously under hot running water to remove all particles and debris each time the pack was emptied to allow filtering of the water. Conditioning and charging of each batch of water, aka cell juice, was largely terminated once the liquid had met each of the following goals:
  • reached the characteristic yellow-golden color
  • the Tyndall test showed large quantities of colloidal particles in suspension
  • once the cell, filled with liquid, would retain a residual charge of at least 0.9 VDC for 24 hours after charging with 12 VDC
  • once the liquid exhibited a TDS level of at least 205 ppm
  • once the production of "rust", "brown scum" and "brown particulate matter" in the cell during DC charging had diminished to a very low level
  • once certain baselines on two proprietary esoteric measures were achieved
During one of the final filtering stages of the second batch of cell juice, after the entire emptied cylinder pack had been rinsed vigorously with hot running water and emptied and allowed to dry, while the cell juice was still being filtered, I started to make measurements of the voltage across the empty and dry cell cylinders (innermost to outermost), after first shorting the two cylinders together with a jumper for 30 seconds to discharge any accidental accumulations of static electrical charge. Perhaps 30 seconds after the shorting process had ended, I performed my first measurement of E across the dry cylinders and discovered a voltage of about 2.5 VDC (outermost cylinder positive, innermost cylinder negative.) Believing it to be stray static DC potential, I again shorted the two cylinders with a jumper clip lead for one minute and then also shorted each of the neutral cylinders to the outermost cylinder as well to remove any residual electrostatic potential therefrom. Measuring E across the outermost to innermost cells once again, I again discovered a residual EMF of about 2.5 VDC. By now a bit intrigued, I let the empty and dry Joe Cell array (aka cylinder pack) sit for an additional 12 hours and returned the next day and again repeated the same sequence of shorting followed by measures of E, and again noticed much the same results. By this time, I was wondering what effective source impedance was exhibited by the cell when acting as a DC power source, and over the ensuing 24 hours I found that if I inserted a 100k resistor in series with a DC milliammeter across the cell, it would rather consistently deliver about 8.0 uA for many hours on end, with peaks of up to 14 uA, even after repeated shorting of the two "poles" of the cell to achieve discharge of any electrostatic potential. (Incidentally, I also discovered that the cell pack would also deliver over 11 uA for hours at a time across a 390 ohm resistive load, which is rather unbelievable, but I chose to use a load resistor of 100k for most of my tests just to keep everything rather conservative and sane!)

Of course, the first thing that a casual outside observer might suggest when informed of these observations might be something along the lines of: "Well, couldn't the residual E and I capacity be due simply to the total effective capacitance across the cell? The problem with this hypothesis is that anyone remotely familiar with capacitor design and construction will realize that theoretically, the total capacitance exhibited across the outermost to the innermost cylinder, for a dry SS cell pack of this size and using air as the dielectric, would be at most about 110 pf. Indeed, I tested those theoretical assumptions with a LF digital capacitance meter and discovered that the total capacitance exhibited across the cell pack was about 50 to 60 pf. When it comes to storing significant quantities of DC energy, 60 pf is an incredibly tiny capacitance, and the total DC charge which could be stored by a 60 pf capacitor would be incredibly tiny, and could certainly not be expected to maintain an E of over 2 volts and an I of ~ 8 uA across a 100k resistive load for over 24 hours, particularly after being exposed to repeated bouts of "dead-short" shorting of the cell poles! In fact, I even grabbed a high-Q 100 pf silver-mica capacitor and a 100 f gold glass/air capacitor from my parts bin and charged each with 12 VDC to observe first-hand any residual E/I capacity effects, and there were none. Once each capacitor had been shorted for even two seconds after the 12 VDC potential was removed, the potential (E) exhibited by the capacitor was effectively zero volts, the capacitor was not able to deliver even 1 uA for even a few seconds across a 100 kohm load.

I have, since the first set of observations, been able to replicate these observations on each of the two occasions (subsequent cell emptyings / rinsings / dryings) when I attempted to do so, and always observed a persistent E of at least 1.2 volts across the cell and the residual capacity to source the above-cited current for many hours or days. My only guess at this point is that the residual power "storage" capacity exhibited by the dry and empty cylinder pack is indicative of a considerable remnant orgone charge residing in the cylinder pack, and that this orgone charge produces a steady DC potential of moderate source impedance (i.e. between 40 kohm and 150 kohm) across the dry and empty cylinder pack for many hours or even days after the liquid electrolyte (aka cell juice) has been drained and the once-charged cylinder pack rinsed and allowed to air-dry. I have also made some preliminary observations that the total power (E x I x time) capacity of the cylinder pack increases with the number of cylinders (i.e., as the number of SS cylinders is increased) and also with several other factors.

So, Is This Also a Sign of the Production of Overunity Power Production, i.e., of Free Energy?
While the observations of anomalous production DC power by an empty and dry Joe Cell cylinder pack is fun and interesting and decidedly unexpected and anomalous, it is hardly evidence of overunity power production, i.e., of "free energy", simply for the stark fact that the cell/array in question had been charged for many days and even weeks with a charging voltage of anywhere from 10 VDC to 31 VDC and a charging current of anywhere from 90 ma to 0.6 A. Thus, while we cannot
explain exactly "where" the observed DC power delivered by the cell came "from", the fact remains that the total DC power delivered by the dry empty Joe Cell cylinder array in these tests was perhaps one-millionth of the DC power which had been pumped into the liquid-filled cell over the previous two months. So, sorry, but while we did witness anomalous DC power production where NONE should be expected, it does not qualify as overunity power or free energy!

P.S. For anyone wondering at my seeming familiarity with electronics concepts and measures, I was an avid radio/electronics buff from age 6 onward, and a ham radio operator by age 10, and my first degree program was in physics and electronics engineering, and after finishing college (my first pass through college, that is!) I worked as an electronics design engineer and electronics/RF research engineer for 15 years. I retooled in later life, first as a psychotherapist at the graduate level, and later as a scientist at the graduate level, and finally studied acupuncture at the grad level as well.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) and Discussion on the Above Anomalous DC Power Generation
[In the section below, questions and comments from interested researchers are italicized. Answers and replies from Vinny are not italicized.]

Q: Fascinating! You anticipated and fully answered the first "casual observer" question, namely that of capacitance. Could this be not just plain capacitance, but a 'capacitance like' feature, rather I want to say a dynamic capacitance due to differential outgassing of ionic species from the cell's inner and outer walls? In other words after a long bout of cell juicing, where the anode participates in one dominant chemical reaction (call it electrolytic reaction "A") and the the cathode participates in a different dominant chemical reaction (call it electrolytic reaction "C"), could it be that the empty cell, even after emptying, washing, and shorting, still outgasses ionic species at a sufficient rate to sustain a small, constant voltage?

A: Yes, I understand... what you are proposing is an "air battery" constructed of SS cylinders and air, dependent upon differential evaporation/offgassing of various ions/molecules from the SS surfaces. This is remotely possible under conventional scientific thinking, but there exists the problem that the dielectric, which is, namely, air, exhibits infinite DC resistance, and thus how could we explain the inner network to account for current flow?

Q continued: I can rather easily suggest a simple, zero cost, and interesting alteration in the experimental setup to test for this. What you would do is set up a fan... a simple axially mounted computer fan would likely do just fine... and have it blow continuously through the cells, driving the air in an axial direction. If my guess is correct, then if the fan speed is very low, you'd see a reduction in the V across the shells, the lower the faster the fan, and the E-remanence would go away faster, the faster the stronger the airflow was made.

A: Unfortunately, the test which you have proposed, even if some results were noticed, would prove nothing regarding your original hypothesis, as conventional or traditional orgone theory insists upon the following two principles as two of its many tenets:
  • air blowing across/through an orgone accumulator will tend to remove some of the orgone charge
  • any electrical device or appliance, particularly a motor, placed anywhere near a charged orgone accumulator, i.e., within 6 feet of it, will tend to "disturb" and drain the orgone energy from the cell
So, classical orgone theory would largely predict a gradual reduction in the observed voltage due to orgone charge simply due to the above factors, and it contains other tenets which could also counteract that predicted drop due to fan-induced airflow by about 5%, but not worth discussing in detail at this point, as the effect is down in the noise floor.

continued: Thanks for thinking about this. In order to set aside 'air as a dielectric', we could do a thought-experiment of doing this experiment in empty space. There are ionic flows there which result in sustained electric current between, say, the Sun and Earth, or Jupiter and Io, sustained, all without air as a dielectric.

A: Yes, but those largely involve plasmas; it is hard to produce a plasma at standard temperature and pressure (STP) with lots of energy, and then, if one did exist on earth at STP, it would be quite obvious, from the ozone, from the glow, and from the noise.

continued: I understand the object to an electric fan as an air driver. Perhaps a wind-up fan?

A: It still produces moving air, and the classical Reicheans claim that moving air or wind will move orgone or dampen it.

continued: ... taking the empty Joe Cell *outside* on a breezy day, and seeing if the DC behavior persists or changes?

A: Please see note about ANY moving air or wind. And, taking the cell outside would immediately invoke dozens of new and entirely-uncontrolled-for variables, including fresh air, sunlight, removal of Joe Cell from its normal charged indoor environment, operator factors, movement factors, etc.

Q: Fascinating, thanks for sharing. Another test would be interesting. How about starting with new SS tubes, a new bucket, new spacers and measuring the DC voltage and current? We would all expect it to be zero.

A: I have done this several times, in the process of setting up cells, and, as you can likely guess, the measured voltage is never truly zero. Rather, it is a mad and chaotic array of ever-changing AC, RF and DC voltages, due to the impingement of all kinds of electrical and electromagnetic fields from the environment on the SS tubes of the cell, which act as an antenna, and a look at the signal spectra on a scope or spectrum analyzer confirms this. However, all these voltages are present at source impedances of well over 10 Megohms, and thus the current which they can source is nowhere near the constant DC voltage and current which I had witnessed (across 24 hours) for the charged but empty Joe Cell, and rather about 3 to 7 orders of magnitude weaker. And, the voltages from the "antenna" are incoherent, while the DC voltage and current which I measured consistently coming from the empty JoC was pure clean DC.

Q continued:Then let this setup sit and measure every day to see if the voltages begin to appear.

A: I have never watched an empty and never-used cell for more than a few days, but you may wish to conduct such an experiment if you are interested!

Q continued: I have the same type of equipment and similar experience with RF as you. I have looked at the structure and suspected a resonant cavity oscillator at microwave frequencies, but that effect should be there right away, not days or weeks later.
...The charged capacitor does not work as an explanation.
...The metal turning into a semiconductor does also not work since there is no DC connection.
...The antenna idea also does not work.

A: And, in any case, the power source effect which I had noted was DC, pure clean DC...!

Q continued: The insulators seem like the best culprits. I can see pieces of garden hose as spacers, but not what is holding up the tubes from the bucket bottom.

A: The spacers are not garden hose, but 3/8" lengths of a much smaller diameter industrial plastic hose. Same small spacers near bottom, and, as hopefully disclosed in my original article, the spacers which keep the SS tubes elevated about 0.38" above the bottom of the bucket consist of an "X" made of clear flexible PVC plastic tubing, glued in an "X" pattern to the bucket bottom. So, minimal contact and minimal chance to act as electret, and please bear in mind that I measured the total capacitance from inner cylinder to outer cylinder using an AC/LF capacitance meter, and capacitance was entirely as expected theoretically, about 50 to 60 pf.

Q continued: Another explanation might be the charge in the dielectric of the spacers. An electret can be shorted out for a long time and still come back to full voltage.

A: There are only four small spacers (short lengths of plastic tubing under compression) at each end of each SS tube pair, and the total electret/dielectric mass is very small, and, in any case, the total source impedance presented by the small insulators and the SS tubes would theoretically be on the order of about 20 Megohms or greater. There is no way that classical electrodynamic theory and dielectric capacitance models can account for the voltage and current that this cylinder pack was able to deliver for over 24 hours straight at a source impedance of perhaps 300 kohms. Also interesting is the fact that the DC-source phenomena was so strong and the source impedance so low that the DC voltage totally overrode all the normal background noise (seen on a high input impedance voltmeter or a high input impedance scope or spectrum analyzer) seen when such an empty array of SS tubes acts as an accidental antenna for all kinds of DC, AC and RF signals in the environment. This is highly unusual.

Q: There are some strange effects and I would welcome your help in setting up another experiment. Can you point me to where I can purchase the proper SS pipes?

A: Well, you can go either of two ways here, as follows: You can go to ebay and purchase a 4" OD x 6" high x 4 cylinder Joe Cell stack (i.e., such as item number: 280187831637) from "waterkarz" on ebay, and then add one or two more cylinders (see sourcing/fabrication notes below), of either 1.5" OD or 2.5" OD, to the stack to bring the cylinder count up to 5 cylinders (or more). The JoC stacks which he (waterkarz) sold useta be 8" tall, and now they are only 6" tall, but that is not a big nor important difference!


You can go to an online metals supplier -- such as onlinemetals.com (this is the one I use) -- and purchase some lengths of SS 304 or SS 316 tubing in various outside diameters such as 0.5", 1", 1.5", 2", 2.5", 3", 3.5" and up to 4". You can either have them do "rough cuts" to your specified lengths (i.e., 6" or 8") and then clean the ends (and adjust rough length as needed) yourself once the pieces arrive, or you can order 1 foot to 4 foot lengths and then either cut them to size yourself when they arrive or take them to a machine shop to have them cut to desired lengths. As for insulators, you can use for the compression-fit insulators either 0.4" to 0.5" lengths of ordinary clear plastic vinyl tubing of an appropriate diameter (a bit lossier than the next option), or you can pick another type of flexible plastic tubing of your choice.

If you need a bit of waterproof glue/sealant to hold something in place, you can use a dab of glue from a hot glue gun for a relatively short glue lifetime, or you can use Sikaflex 291 waterproof marine sealant (Sikaflex 291 is a one-component, low viscous, medium modulus, polyurethane-based sealing/adhesive compound) or Sikaflex 292 for higher viscosity; both are rated for continuous underwater use in marine environments and can even withstand use in time-space portals where the Sikaflex seal is being continuously "ripped" through dimensions when used in an inside-gateway application. In fact, Sikaflex was developed for use in the late-1970s top-secret CIA blackops Time Tunnel project (we attempted to go back to Nazi-era Germany and replace Eva Braun with an assassin look-alike, but then the Crookford scandal broke, endangering the project... I think!)

Q: I have ordered 4", 3", 2.5", 2", 1.5", 1", 0.5" by 8 inch 304 welded SS tubes to play with. From the picture it looks like you used 4", 3", 2.5", 2" and 1", but it is hard to tell. Please confirm or deny.

A: Yes, and quite a few details of the cell construction are available in my original article; the cell was 8" high, and the outermost SS tube had an OD of 4", with other tubes measuring ODs of 3", 2.5", 2" and 1". The four tubes with whole integer sizes were SS type 316I, while the 2.5" length was type 316L.

Before I forget, the exact water used in this cell was unfiltered/unprocessed mountain well water exhibiting a TDS of 35 ppm at start, which had first been converted to high-ormus MEOW water in one of my MEOW SM2 kettles during a 12 hour treatment.

Q continued: Would you please state exactly the tubing you used, where to get some...

A: I doubt very much that this phenomena was exactly dependent upon the precise tubing employed, and, as for sources, see suggestions above. In my particular setup, the four tubes with whole integer ODs had come from a 4 tube by 4 inch OD by 8 inch high JoC stack purchased from the ebay vendor named in my earlier post, and the piece of 316L tubing came from the online metals vendor named in my answer.

Q continued: ... or possibly send me a hunk if you have extra. I want to duplicate yours exactly.

A: I do not have any extra pieces.

In any case, you would never be able to duplicate my setup exactly, due to the tremendous number of hard-to-control and even unknown variables encountered in constructing and breaking in a working Joe Cell, including the following:
  • variance in exact SS tubing properties across batches and types, and even across pieces from the same batch
  • variance in source water across time and across sources
  • variance in ormus-enrichment MEOW treatment and treatment kettles, including MEOW mixtures, of water prior to Joe Cell cleaning / priming / conditioning
  • variance encountered in the lengthy process of cleaning, conditioning and priming the water
  • variance encountered in the many dozens of cycles of filtration and subsequent charging of the water at varying DC voltages and varying DC current
  • variance in the dozen or so cycles of post-priming / conditioning Joe Cell-based orgone charging
  • variance due to the Y factor (operator-dependent factors); in my case, the Y factor may be quite extreme because of the fact that I am a spiritual healer and spend from 2 to 5 hours per day in deep meditation within 17 feet of the Joe Cell test bench in my lab
  • variance due to the Z factor (environment / setting-dependent factors); consider also the unique factors such as the fact that my lab is located in a rather pristine mountain wilderness environment, and my local setting is one which several psychics and intuitives have claimed is bathed in all kinds of natural "healing" (aka beneficial) earth energies.
  • unique environmental factors extant in my lab such presence nearby of dozen functional Quantum Coherence devices and related Coherent Space devices
  • unique environmental factors extant in my lab such presence nearby of two functional prototype models of Jenny Cells.
Q continued: I am still blaming the spacers for the stray voltage. Even though you washed with hot water and let it dry, there could be a coating of the electrolyte on the surface and or impregnated in the rubber hose material.

A: Yes, it could very well be, and I would love to blame the spacers myself, but the spacers were of very small size and low mass, and the "cell juice", aka aetherolyte, did not contain much in the way of salts, the TDS of the completed cell juice was only in the range of about 205 ppm, and most of the already-low TDS was due not to dissolved salts but to colloidal particles consisting largely of insoluble oxides.

Q continued: You stated that you measured from the outer 4 inch tube to the inner tube. Have you measured any other combination? Like is there 1.25 volts between the 1 inch and the 3 inch for example, or 0.5 volts from the 1 inch to the 2 inch?

A: I have measured both DC voltage and capacitance between each cylinder in the cell in the dry/empty condition. To a large extent, yes, the voltages are proportional, but with some individual variances across certain pairs, as would be expected due to variances in spacing, etc. And the inter-tube capacitance between each of the tubes was exactly as would be expected in theory.

with care,


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